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The people of Vanuatu are called Ni-Vanuatu and are primarily (98.5%) of Melanesian descent, with the remainder made up of a mix of Europeans, Asians and other Pacific islanders. Ni-Vanuatu have lived in these islands for centuries and more than 110 distinctly different cultures and languages still thrive here. Vanuatu is recognized as one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. Dances, ceremonies, status and systems of authority, artistic styles, animal and crop husbandry can vary from island to island, and often from district to district. These cultural traditions are known as kastom.

The national language of the Vanuatu is Bislama. The official languages are Bislama, French and English. The principal languages of education are French and English. Bislama is a pidgin language. Essentially combining a typically Melanesian grammar with a mostly English vocabulary, Bislama is the only language that can be understood and spoken by the majority of the population, as a second language. In addition, 113 indigenous languages are still actively spoken in Vanuatu.